For U.S. researchers who are unfamiliar with UK case law citations, the first step in retrieving a UK case will be to decipher the citation to determine in which reporter the case was published. Knowing that information will help you to decide which electronic database to use to retrieve the full text of the court's opinion. Some older cases may only be available in print.
Use these resources to interpret UK case law citations:
It should be noted that the volume of court decisions that are published in the UK is significantly lower than in the U.S. Generally speaking, only those decisions which break new ground, or which apply existing statutes or common law principles to novel sets of facts, are selected for publication.
The modern system of case law reporting in the UK dates from 1865. For assistance in locating cases that were reported prior to 1865, consult the Primary Sources page of the English Legal History research guide (scroll down to Case Reports).
Listed in the table below are the contemporary UK case law reporters that researchers are most likely to encounter, along with their corresponding citation formats.
|Name of Reporter||Description||Citation Format|
|The Law Reports||This quasi-official series, published since 1865 by the Incorporated Council for Law Reporting (ICLR) for England and Wales, is widely regarded as the most authoritative. The Law Reports is currently divided into four sub-series. (See the following table for details.)||party names, [year], sub-series abbreviation, page.|
|The Weekly Law Reports||This series, also published by ICLR, appears each week in paperback. Section 1 includes cases deemed worthy of being reported, even though they do not raise any new points of law. Section 2 includes cases of greater significance that eventually will be re-published in The Law Reports.||party names, [year], section number (1 or 2), WLR, page.|
|All England Law Reports||This commercially published reporter has broader coverage than The Law Reports. Most practitioners consider the headnotes to be more helpful than the ones published in The Law Reports.||party names, [year], All ER, page.|
Note that The Law Reports is divided into four sub-series, which have changed over time. The current sub-series of The Law Reports, along with their abbreviations, are listed in the table below. The relevant sub-series abbreviation should be included when citing to a case published in The Law Reports.
|Current Sub-Series of The Law Reports (1972-present)||Abbreviation||Description|
|Appeals Cases||AC||Publishes decisions issued by the Supreme Court of the UK and by the Court of Appeal, as well as appellate decisions issued by the High Court of Justice.|
|Chancery Division Cases||Ch||Publishes trial level decisions issued by the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice, which hears cases involving the governance of business entities, insolvency, trust law, and matters of equity.|
|Queen's Bench Cases
(King's Bench Cases)
|Publishes trial level decisions issued by the Queen's Bench Division of the High Court of Justice, which hears civil cases in all matters not assigned to the Chancery Division or to the Family Division. Note that this division is known as the King's Bench (KB) when there is a male monarch.|
|Family Division Cases||Fam||Publishes trial level decisions issued by the Family Division of the High Court of Justice, which hears cases involving marriage, children, medical treatment, wills, and probate matters.|
Cases published in The Law Reports and The Weekly Law Reports contain editorial enhancements that will help you to understand the court's decision. These include headnotes that summarize each point of law discussed in the opinion, a procedural history, a summary of the holding, and a list of prior cases and statutes cited by the court.
In addition to the reporters described above, there are dozens of specialized reporters published by commercial vendors that focus on particular types of cases. As in the United States, cases often are published in more than one reporter. Citations should be made to the most authoritative reporter in which a case is published, with a clear preference given to The Law Reports if the case was published therein.
This subscription database provides electronic access to cases published in the quasi-official Law Reports (1865-present) and Weekly Law Reports (1953-present), as well as in the following specialized reporter series: The Business Law Reports (company, commercial, and IP cases), The Industrial Cases Reports (employment, discrimination, and pension cases) and The Public and Third Sector Law Reports (adoption, charity, ecclesiastical, education, and local government cases). For cases whose judgments are not reported in full, summaries are provided.
Basic Search -- Enter one or more keywords or party names in the search box near the top of the homepage. Click on the "Search Help" link for tips on how to construct a search and for a full list Boolean operators, proximity operators, and other search connectors.
Full Search -- Select this option to retrieve a case by citation or to limit searches to a specific court, judge or date range. It is also possible to search by "catchwords," which are subject headings assigned to each case by the ICLR editors.
Citator -- In addition to providing the subsequent appellate history of a case, ICLR Online's citator identifies all subsequent cases that have cited the court's opinion ("subsequent consideration"), as well as prior cases ("cases considered") and legislation ("legislation considered") that are cited within the court's opinion. To display this information, click on the case caption (party names) of the desired case in the list of search results.
This subscription database allows you search the full texts of texts of judgments issued by the UK Supreme Court and by the courts of England and Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. You may use the jurisdictional filters on the right to expand your search to include citations to cases from selected Commonwealth jurisdictions. Note, however, that the Law Library's subscription to JustisOne only provides access to the full texts of UK court decisions.
Search Options -- The full-text search box supports natural language (keyword) searching. It also recognizes Boolean (AND, OR, NOT) and proximity (w/n) operators. Use the other boxes to search by citation or by party name, and to limit searches by category (subject), by court, by judge, by year or by a specific date range.
Citator -- For each court decision retrieved, JustisOne provides a list of Citing Cases (subsequent cases that have cited the court's opinion), as well as lists of Cited Cases and Cited Legislation (prior cases and legislation cited within the court's opinion). This information will be displayed in the left-hand panel when you open a case by clicking on the caption. Use the menu at the top of the panel to select which information to display.
Lexis (United Kingdom Materials)
Lexis provides access to cases published in dozens of regional and subject-specific UK case law reporters (dates of coverage vary). To search broadly across all available reporters, use the All United Kingdom Cases database or select a specific reporter from the list below the search box. Alternatively, you may opt to search All England and Wales Cases, All Scotland Cases, or the Northern Ireland Law Reports.
Westlaw (United Kingdom Resources)
Westlaw's United Kingdom Cases database includes cases published in dozens of subject-specific case law reporters (dates of coverage vary), as well as historical cases published in The English Reports (covering the period from 1220 to 1865). Westlaw also offers a UK case law citator (UK Case Law Locator) that will help you to determine if a particular case is still good law.
Note that The Law Reports and The Weekly Law Reports are no longer available on Lexis and Westlaw. If you have a citation to a case published in one of these quasi-official reporters, the best option for retrieving the case on Lexis or on Westlaw is to open the Advanced Search template and search for the names of the parties. Ask a librarian if you need assistance.
British and Irish Legal Information Institute (BAILII)
BAILII maintains a free online database of UK case law. Although the interface is not as sleek and user-friendly as that of ICLR Online, the coverage is broader and includes case law from Scotland and Northern Ireland, as well as the Irish Republic, the Court of Justice of the European Union, and the European Court of Human Rights. The search template supports both keyword and Boolean searching and enables users to restrict searchers to a particular court or date range. Users also have the option of searching by citation and by party name (title).
Supreme Court of the UK
All judgments rendered by the Supreme Court since its inception in 2009 are freely available for download in PDF format from the Court's website by clicking on the Decided Cases tab. Cases are arranged by year of decision in reverse chronological order, but it is also possible to search by keyword. For information about pending cases, click on the Current Cases tab. Judgments rendered by the Supreme Court's predecessor, the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords (the "Law Lords"), may be accessed from this online archive, which covers the period from 1996-2009.
Courts & Tribunals Website (Judiciary of England & Wales)
The Courts and Tribunals website selectively publishes recent judgments rendered in civil and criminal cases in England and Wales. Both trial and appellate court judgments are included. Most are available for download in PDF format. Coverage is limited to higher profile cases decided within the last three to four years.
Scottish Courts & Tribunals Website
Provides access to selected recent judgments issued by various courts and tribunals in Scotland. Scroll down to select the desired court or tribunal. After the page refreshes, browse chronologically or search by keyword.
Academic users of Bloomberg Law may download pleadings, judgments, and other litigation documents filed electronically in selected UK courts. To access this material, log in to Bloomberg Law with your individual user name and password. Then navigate to Bloomberg Law Dockets. Use the Courts menu to select International Dockets. Then scroll down to select one or more of the following courts:
You may limit docket searches to a single court (or division thereof) or search across the dockets of multiple courts. Dates of coverage vary by court.