The IGOs, NGOs, and U.S. government agencies listed below are reliable sources of information about the challenges of combating cyber threats and managing conflicts in cyberspace.
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
The military alliance of North American and European nations is increasingly focused on combating cyber threats as part of its core task of collective defense. NATO also has affirmed that international law principles apply to cyberspace. Its website provides access to the following resources:
- NATO's Cooperative Cyber Defense Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE)
The CCDCOE provides research and training to NATO and its member states to help them defend against cyber threats. It is best known for its work on The Tallinn Manual, which applies international law principles to cyber operations. The CCDCOE's website also provides access to the following resources:
- Cyber Terms Glossary -- Use this online glossary to help you decipher specialized jargon related to cyber security and cyber warfare. For some terms, multiple definitions from different sources are provided.
- Cyber Security Publication Library -- Search or browse for publications by CCDCOE researchers.
- INCYDER -- Search or browse this database for legal and policy documents adopted by international organizations that are active in promoting cyber security and defending against cyber attacks.
- Strategy & Governance Database -- Content includes a directory of national cyber security agencies and selected national policy documents. Search by keyword or browse by country or document type.
- United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR) Cyber Policy Portal
This autonomous UN institute assists the international community in finding solutions to disarmament and security challenges. It also strives to anticipate new security threats before they become critical. UNIDIR's Cyber Policy Portal provides access to the following information:
- IGO Directory -- This directory provides links to the websites of inter-governmental organizations that are active in promoting cyber security and preventing cyber attacks. For each IGO, you will find a selection of policy documents, model laws, and related documentation.
- Comparison Tool -- Use this tool to compare cyber security measures and policies in different countries and among various inter-governmental organizations. Begin by selecting two or more countries or two or more IGOs from the respective menus. Points of comparison include national policies/strategies, legal frameworks (national legislation), and international cooperation (ratification of multilateral and regional treaties).
- International Committee for the Red Cross (ICRC)
The ICRC's website is the best online resource for researching international humanitarian law (IHL). In addition to its searchable databases of primary law, the website includes the following secondary source content:
- New Technologies and IHL -- This page aggregates all ICRC content concerning the novel humanitarian and legal challenges posed by emerging technologies, including cyber weapons and cyber warfare.
- Terrorism and IHL -- This page aggregates all ICRC content on the application of IHL to acts of terrorism.
- Resource Centre -- Search by keyword for articles and other ICRC publications.
- IHL Bibliography -- Every three months, the ICRC compiles a comprehensive list of books and articles published in English and in French on topics related to IHL. Annual bibliographies also are available for download.
- The Rand Corporation
This independent think tank, which is known for the quality and rigor of its work product, is a good source for credible research and informed commentary. Many of its research reports are available for download in PDF format.
U.S. Government Agencies
- Department of Defense (DoD) Cyber Command
Cyber Command has developed a strategy for defending the U.S. and its national interests against cyber attacks, as well as a strategy for defending its own computer network systems and formulating contingency plans to maintain military operations in the event of a cyber attack.
- Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA)
Operating under the umbrella of the Department of Homeland Security, CISA is the lead civilian agency responsible for safeguarding the federal government's IT infrastructure. It also works with state and local governments and the private sector to prevent, mitigate, investigate, and recover from cyber incidents. CISA's website provides more detailed information about the following matters: