The IGOs, NGOs, and U.S. government agencies listed below are reliable sources of information about the challenges of combating cyber threats and managing conflicts in cyberspace.
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
The military alliance of North American and European nations is increasingly focused on combating cyber threats as part of its core task of collective defense. NATO also has affirmed that international law principles apply to cyberspace. Its website provides access to the following resources:
- Cyber Defense -- This page aggregates all of NATO's cyber security content. Use the filters on the right to narrow by content type (news, opinions, videos, official texts, etc.).
- Publications -- Search by keyword for NATO publications on cyber security and cyber warfare.
- NATO Multimedia Library Online Research Guides
The following research guides provide links to both primary and secondary sources:
- NATO's Cooperative Cyber Defense Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE)
The CCDCOE provides research and training to NATO and its member states to help them defend against cyber threats. It is best known for its work on The Tallinn Manual, which applies international law principles to cyber operations. The CCDCOE's website also provides access to the following resources:
- United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR)
This autonomous UN institute assists the international community in finding solutions to disarmament and security challenges and strives to anticipate new security threats before they become critical. Its website provides access to the following resources:
- Publications on Emerging Security Issues -- Use this page to download UNIDIR publications in PDF format. Scroll down to browse chronologically or open the Advanced Search template to search by keyword or by title.
- Programs on Emerging Security Issues -- Use this page for information about cyber security conferences and projects sponsored by UNIDIR, as well as related documentation. Browse chronologically or open the Advanced Search template to search by title or keyword.
- International Committee for the Red Cross (ICRC)
The ICRC's website is the best online resource for researching international humanitarian law (IHL). In addition to its searchable databases of primary law, the website includes the following secondary source content:
- New Technologies and IHL -- This page aggregates all ICRC content concerning the novel humanitarian and legal challenges posed by emerging technologies, including cyber weapons and cyber warfare.
- Terrorism and IHL -- This page aggregates all ICRC content on the application of IHL to acts of terrorism.
- Resource Centre -- Search by keyword for articles and other ICRC publications.
- IHL Bibliography -- Every three months, the ICRC compiles a comprehensive list of books and articles published in English and in French on topics related to IHL. Annual bibliographies also are available for download.
- The Rand Corporation
This independent think tank, which is known for the quality and rigor of its work product, is a good source for credible research and informed commentary. Many of its research reports are available for download in PDF format.
U.S. Government Agencies
- Department of Defense (DoD)
The DoD has developed a strategy (linked below) for defending the U.S. and its national interests against cyber attacks, defending its own computer network systems, and formulating contingency plans to maintain military operations in the event of a cyber attack.
- Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
The DHS is the lead civilian agency responsible for safeguarding the federal government's IT infrastructure. It also works with state and local governments and the private sector to prevent, mitigate, investigate, and recover from cyber incidents. The department's website provides more detailed information about the following matters: