- World Health Organization's (WHO) Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response (EPR) [http://www.who.int/csr/en/]
The overall framework for EPR's strategy is the International Health Regulations (IHR) (for more information about IHR, check "Sources of Legal Authority" below). EPR focuses on the leading epidemic and emerging diseases. It develops and strengthens specific global surveillance and response networks for diseases such as influenza, meningococcal meningitis, plague, SARS, viral haemorrhagic fevers (Ebola, Lassa) and yellow fever. EPR's epidemic intelligence system gathers and verifies outbreak information daily from around the world and coordinates international responses to outbreaks of global importance, under its operational arm, the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network. EPR also supports the strengthening of national capacity for alert and response.
- WHO's Global Influenza Programme
Part of WHO's Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response (EPR).
- Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases (EMPRES)
Established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 1994, the EMPRES-Livestock programme plays a major role in the fight against persisting and/or spreading transboundary animal diseases such as mad cow disease and avian flu at a global level, with emphasis on developing countries through international co-operation involving early warning, early reaction, enabling research, and coordination.
- European Union Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)
- European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISS)
Funded by the Health and Consumer Protection Directorate-General, European Commission EISS collects and exchanges timely information on influenza activity; contributes to the annual determination of the influenza vaccine content, providing relevant information about influenza to health professionals and the general public and the general public and contributes to European influenza pandemic preparedness.
United States - Federal
Many federal agencies are responsible for various aspects of emergency preparedness and response. The HHS Pandemic Influenza Plan (November 2005) prepared by the Department of Health and Human Services provides a summary of major pandemic preparedness roles of HHS officials, agencies and divisons (Table 3). The section on HHS Actions for Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response summarizes key actions and responsible agencies by pandemic phase. Roles played by other federal departments are not detailed in the plan, nor are the coordination and communication amongst departments and agencies. A brief description of the roles played by HHS officials, agencies and divisions is as follows. For a more detailed list, please refer toTable 3 of the HHS Pandemic Influenza Plan (November 2005):
- Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
- Secretary of Health and Human Services
Directs all HHS pandemic response activities.
- Office of Assistant Secretary for Health (ASH) Coordinates HHS pandemic activities and monitors progress.
- Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public Health Emergency Preparedness(OPHEP)
Coordinates HHS response activities with other federal departments and agencies.
- National Vaccine Program Office (NVPO)
Coordinates development and revisions of the pandemic preparedness and response plan; coordinates and monitors preparedness activities during the inter-pandemic period, reporting to ASH; coordinates HHS agencies on vaccine issues via the Interagency Vaccine Group (IAVG).
- Office of the General Counsel (OGC) Advises on law related to key pandemic response activities.
- Office of the Assistant Secretary of Public Affairs (ASPA)
Develops communications plan including public messages and materials.
- Office of Global Health Affairs (OGHA) Oversees interactions with other governments and international organizations related to pandemic preparedness.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Works with partners throughout the nation and the world to monitor health, detect and investigate health problems; develops, evaluates and modifies disease control and prevention strategies; stockpiles antiviral drugs and other essential materials; promotes and supports influenza vaccination programs. The Influenza Pandemic Operation Plan (OPLAN) is published by the CDC.
- Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Regulates and licenses vaccines and antiviral agents through the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research and the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, respectively; develops influenza viral reference strains and reagents and makes them available to manufacturers for vaccine development and evaluation.
- National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Conducts and supports biomedical research, including vaccine research and development.
- Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)
Oversees the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program; coordinates planning for health care and hospital surge capacity and emergency preparedness.
- Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Promotes and supports influenza vaccination for Medicare patients' fosters improved delivery of influenza vaccination to hospitalized pneumonia patients.
- National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC)
The NVAC is made up of 15 members appointed for rotating four-year terms by the Director of the NVP in consultation with the National Academy of Sciences, from among individuals who are engaged in vaccine research or the manufacture of vaccines; or who are physicians, members of parent organizations concerned with immunizations, or representatives of state or local health agencies or public health organizations. The Committee advises the Assistant Secretary for Health (ASH) on pandemic preparedness from perspectives of the multiple stakeholders including in the committee membership.
- Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee (VRBPAC)
Advises the Commissioner of Food and Drugs in discharging his responsibilities as they relate to helping to ensure safe and effective biological products, and as required, any other product for which the FDA has regulatory responsibility.
- Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
Has the overall authority for emergency response activities and will coordinate interventions to maintain community services during a pandemic.
- Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)
Provides surge capacity of medical equipment, materials and personnel when needed during an emergency.
- Department of Agriculture (USDA) Conducts surveillance for influenza in domestic animals.
- Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Transportation (DOT)
Maintains infrastructure during a pandemic.
- Department of Interior (DOI)
Responsible for ensuring public health on more than 500 million acres of land across the country.
United States - State