This section of the research guide focuses on locating legislation, regulatory guidelines, decisions issued by regulatory bodies, and other primary legal materials related to competition law from jurisdictions outside the U.S. For research involving competition laws enacted by the European Union, visit the EU Competition Law page of this research guide.
Websites of National Competition Authorities
Websites maintained by national competition authorities and other regulatory bodies responsible for enforcing competition laws can be excellent sources for retrieving primary legal materials. Content varies by jurisdiction, but typically includes applicable legislation and regulations, regulatory guidelines, decisions issued by regulatory agencies and courts (or summaries thereof), as well as reports, press releases, and news summaries.
Most competition authority websites in non-English speaking jurisdictions provide at least some top-level navigation in English. Many also offer English summaries or full-text English translations of legislation and regulatory guidelines. Bear in mind that other types of materials, particularly decisions issued by regulatory bodies, may only be available in the language of the jurisdiction.
Listed below are two online directories of national competition authority websites, both of which are updated regularly.
- Antitrust Sites Worldwide
The Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice maintains this directory of national competition authority websites. Note that in some jurisdictions, more than one regulatory body is responsible for enforcing competition laws.
- Competition and Consumer Protection Authorities Worldwide
This directory, maintained by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, includes links to websites of national regulatory bodies responsible for enforcing competition laws, as well as those responsible for enforcing consumer protection laws.
Free & Subscription-Based Databases
Use the resources described below to locate primary legal materials related to competition law from jurisdictions outside the U.S. Some provide English-language summaries or full-text English translations of foreign legal materials; others provide links and/or citations to foreign legal materials in their original language.
English Language Summaries & Translations
The following resources offer primary legal materials related to competition law from multiple jurisdictions. For non-English speaking jurisdictions, English language summaries or full-text English translations are provided. Content varies by platform. Some are limited to legislation, while others also include regulatory guidelines and decisions issued by regulatory bodies and courts. Jurisdictional coverage is selective (not comprehensive).
- Lexology: Getting the Deal Through (GTDT)
This multi-jurisdictional resource offers in-depth, practitioner-written summaries of national laws that govern multiple work (practice) areas within the broader field of competition law using a question and answer format. Jurisdictional coverage varies by work area. Use the subject menu on the lower left-hand side of the GTDT homepage to select “Competition and Regulatory.” After the page refreshes, select a work area and then select the desired jurisdiction (or use the comparison tool to compare laws across multiple jurisdictions). Work areas covered: cartel regulation, competition compliance, competition in digital markets, dominance, foreign investment review, intellectual property and antitrust, merger control, pharmaceutical antitrust, private antitrust litigation, public procurement, state aid, and vertical integration.
- Kluwer Competition Law
This subscription database includes full-text English translations of competition laws from selected jurisdictions. To access this content, open the “Search Filters” menu by clicking on the triangle icon to the left of the search box. Select “Legislation and Notices” as the content type and then select the desired jurisdiction.
- Westlaw: Global Competition & Antitrust
Includes competition law legislation, regulatory decisions, and case law from Australia, the E.U., Hong Kong, Singapore, and the U.K.
- Competition Policy & Law Database (Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Forum)
This free resource provides access to competition laws, regulatory guidelines, decisions issued by regulatory bodies, and court decisions from 21 Pacific Rim nations. Content varies by jurisdiction and is selective (not comprehensive). For non-English speaking jurisdictions, laws and regulatory guidelines usually are provided in English translation. For other materials, only brief summaries or citations are provided.
Use this subscription database to retrieve legislation and regulations from 110 jurisdictions worldwide. For non-English speaking jurisdictions, machine-generated English translations are provided, along with links to the laws in their original language. Enter search terms in English and then use the country filters on the left to narrow the results by jurisdiction. After running an initial search, click on the “Advanced Search” link to refine the results using additional search terms.
Primary Legal Materials in Their Original Language
The following resources provide links to primary legal materials in their original language and/or citations to print sources.
- Foreign Law Guide
From the homepage, scroll down and click on the tab labeled “Laws by Subject," and then select “Antitrust, Trade Regulation, and Unfair Competition” from the alphabetical list of subjects. After the page refreshes, select the desired jurisdiction. For some jurisdictions, you will find direct links to electronic versions of laws; for others, only citations to print sources are provided. Also includes lists of relevant secondary sources for some jurisdictions.
- Organization of American States (OAS): Foreign Trade Information System (SICE)
The OAS maintains this collection of national laws pertaining to international trade and related subjects, including competition law. Coverage extends to all countries in the Western Hemisphere except Cuba. In addition to national competition laws, competition provisions in regional and bilateral free trade agreements also are included, as are links to national competition authorities.