Immigration Law, specifically the enforcement of this law, changed dramatically after the attacks of September 11th and the subsequent passage of the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which created the Department of Homeland Security. Where this responsibility had previously been that of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) within the Department of Justice, it is now the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) who is charged with enforcing this law. Particular divisions of the Department of Homeland Security are responsible for administrative and enforcement functions for immigration.
One division of DHS, the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), carries out the administrative functions involved in immigration.
The other two divisions, the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), enforce the laws and protect the U.S. borders.
The Executive Office for Immigration Review (EOIR), a division of the Department of Justice, plays an important role in the administration of immigration law (see Administrative Materials).