Georgetown Law
Georgetown Law Library

In re Gault Research Portal

The impact of in re Gault and the challenges facing juvenile justice: selected literature 1967-2017


Norman Dorsen, Daniel Rezneck, “In re Gault and the Future of Juvenile Law,” 1 Family Law Quarterly 1 (1967).

Robert Gardner, “Gault and California ,”  19 Hastings L.J. 527 (1967-1968).

James George. Gault and the Juvenile Court Revolution. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Institute of Cont. Legal Education, 1968.

Alexander B. Hawes, “Gault and the District of Columbia,”  17 Am. U. L. Rev. 153 (1967-1968).

Robert Hammerman, “Gault and the Juvenile Court,” 1 Md. B.J. 9 (1968-1969).

Norman Lefstein, Vaughan Stapleton, Lee Teitelbaum, “In Search of Juvenile Justice - Gault and Its Implementation,”  3 Law & Soc'y Rev. 491 (1968-1969).

Amos Reed, “Gault and the Juvenile Training School,” 43 Ind. L.J. 641 (1967-1968).

William Sheridan, “The Gault Decision and Probation Services,43 Ind. L.J. 655 (1967-1968).

Ruth Steinfeldt, “The Impact of the Gault Decision in Texas,” 20 Juv. Ct. Judges J. 154 (1969).

Lindsay G. Arthur, “Should Children Be as Equal as People,”  45 N.D. L. Rev. 204 (1968-1969).

Janet Friedman Stansby, "In Re Gault: Children Are People, 55 Cal. L. Rev. 1204 (1967).

Joseph F. Smith Jr.,”An Analysis of When Juveniles Must Be Afforded Due Process Rights,” 58 Neb. L. Rev. 136 1978-1979.

Charles T. McCarter, “The Constitutional Rights of Juveniles in Criminal Cases—Gault and Beyond in North Carolina,” 7 wake Forest L. Rev. 440 1970-1971.

Alice Brandeis Popkin, Fred Jane Lippert, Jeffrey A. Keiter, “Another Look at the Role of Due Process in Juvenile Court,” 6 Fam. L.Q. 233 1972.

Patrick D. McAnany, “Gault Attorneys in the Second Decade: Some Normative Reflections,” 29 J. Juv. & Fam. Cts. 37 1978.

Michael H. Langley, “The Juvenile Court: The Making of a Delinquent,” 7 Law & Soc'y Rev. 273 1972.

Criminal Procedure—Juveniles: Retroactive Application of In re gault Denied in Washington—Brumley v. Charles Denney Juvenile Center, 77 Wn.2d 702, 466 P.2d 481 (1970). 47 Wash. L. Rev. 183 1971-1972.

Samuel M. Davis, “Justice for the Juvenile: The Decision to Arrest and Due Process,” 1971 Duke L.J. 913 1971.

Chester Fairlie, “Appellate Review of Juvenile Court Dispositions: Gault’s Forgotten Footnote,” 5 Conn. L. Rev. 117 1972-1973.


Lee Cooper, Patricia Puritz, Wendy Shang, “Fulfilling the Promise of In re Gault: Advancing the Role of Lawyers for Children,” 33 Wake Forest L. Rev. 651 (fall 1998).

Glen W. Clark, “Procedural Rights in the Juvenile Court: Incorporation or Due Process? 7 Pepp L. Rev. 865 1979-1980.

Tom A. Croxton, “Children and the Supreme Court: Illusions and Realities,” 14 J. Juv. L. 1 1993.

Barry C. Feld, “In re Gault Revisited: A Cross-State Comparison of the Right to Counsel in Juvenile Court,” Crime and Delinquency, vol. 34, no. 4, October 1983, 393-424.

Juvenile Justice: Procedural Safeguards for Delinquents in the Adjudicatory Stage—Not for Adults Only,” 21 Washburn L.J. 288 1981-1982.

Juvenile Law—What Ever Happened to in re Gault and Fundamental Fairness in Juvenile Delinquency Proceedings? 22 Wake Forest L. Rev. 347 1987.

Christopher Manfredi. The Supreme Court and Juvenile Justice. Lawrence, Kansas: Kansas University Press, 1997.

Gary P. Melton, “Taking Gault Seriously: Toward a New Juvenile Court,” 68 Neb. L. Rev. 146 1989.

Irene Merker Rosenberg, “The Constitutional Rights of Children Charged With Crime: Proposal for a Return to the Not So Distant Past,” 27 UCLA L. Rev. 656 1979-1980.

Marc B. Stahl, "The Impact of Counsel on Juvenile Delinquency Proceedings." The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (1973-) 84, no. 3 (1993): 642-68.

Victor Streib, The Juvenile Justice System and Children's Law: Should Juvenile Defense Attorneys be Replaced with Children's Lawyers?,31 JUV. & FAM. CT. J. 53 (1980).

Victor Streib, From Gault to Fare and Smith: The Decline in Supreme Court Reliance Upon Delinquency Theory,7 PEPPERDINE L. REV. 801 (1980).

Robert J. Willey, “The History of Juvenile Law Reform in Ohio Since Gault," 12 Ohio N.U. L. Rev. 469 1985.


Tamar Birckhead, “The Racialization of Juvenile Justice and the Role of the Defense Attorney,” 58 B.C. L. Rev. 379 (2017)

Donna M. Bishop, “Joining the Legal Significance of Adolescent Developmental Capacities with the Legal Rights Provided by In Re Gault,” 60 Rutgers L. Rev. 125 (2007-2008).

Jay D. Blitzman, “Gault's Promise,” 9 Barry L. Rev. 67 (2007).

Susanne M. Bookser, “Making Gault Meaningful: Access to Counsel and Quality of Representation in Delinquency Proceedings for Indigent Youth,” 3 Whittier J. Child and Family Advocacy 297 (2003-2004).

Emily Buss, “The Missed Opportunity in Gault,” 70 U. Chi. L. Rev. 39 (2003).

Megan F. Chaney, “Keeping the Promise of Gault: Requiring Post-Adjudicatory Juvenile Defenders,” 19 Geo. J. on Poverty L. & Pol'y 351 (2012).

Jacqueline Deane, “A Career in Kangaroo Court: Reflections of a Juvenile Defender on the Fortieth Anniversary of in re Gault, “60 Rutgers L. Rev. 225 (2007-2008).

Norman Dorsen, “Reflections on in re Gault,” 60 Rutgers U. L. Rev. 1 (2007-2008).

Jerry R. Foxhoven, “Effective Assistance of Counsel: Quality of Representation for Juveniles in Still Illusory,”  Barry L. Rev. 99 (2007).

Benjamin Friedman, “Protecting Truth: An Argument for Juvenile Rights and a Return to in re Gault,”  58 UCLA L. Rev. Discourse 165 (2010),

Juvenile Justice Update, vol. 9 (2003).

Suzanne R. Houle, Suzanne R., “Juvenile Justice is Not Just Kid Stuff: The Forgotten Side of Fairness and Due Process,” 9 Dartmouth L.J. 86 (2011).

David R. Katner, Foreword: The Legacy of Gault, 44 No. 3 Crim. Law Bulletin 1 (2008).

Joanna Kloet, “It's Not (Fundamentally) Fair: The Right to Counsel on the Immigration Consequences of Juvenile Misconduct,” 27 U. Fla. J.L. & Pub. Pol'y 329 (2016)

Katherine Kruse, “In re Gault and the Promise of Systemic Reform,” 75 Tenn. L. Rev. 287 (2007-2008).

Michael L. Lindsey, “The Impact of Gault on the Representation of Minority Youth,” 44 No. 3 Crim. Law Bulletin 4 (2008)

Robert Listenbee, “In re Gault,”Cornerstone, Vol. 28, Number 3 (2006): 12-32.

Suparna Malempati, “Beyond Paternalism: The Role of Counsel for Children in Abuse and Neglect Proceedings, 11 U.N.H. L. Rev. 97 (April 2013)

Joanna S. Markman, In re Gault: A Retrospective in 2007: IS IT WORKING? CAN IT WORK? 9 Barry L. Rev. 123 (2007).

Ellen Marrus, “Gault, 40 Years Later: Are We There Yet?” 44 No. 3 Crim. Law Bulletin 6 (2008).

Steven Mintz, “Placing Children's Rights in Historical Perspective,” 44 No. 3 Crim. Law Bulletin 2 (2008).

National Juvenile Defender Center: Defend Children: A Blueprint for Effective Juvenile Defender Services (2016),

National Juvenile Defender Center. Access Denied: A National Snapshot of States’ Failure to Protect Children’s Right to Counsel (2017),

Wallace J. Mlyniec, “In re Gault at 40: The Right to Counsel in Juvenile Court -- A Promise Unfulfilled,” 44 Crim. L. Bull. 371-412 (2008).

Bernard Perlmutter, “Unchain the Children: Gault, Therapeutic Jurisprudence, and Shackling ,” 9 Barry L. Rev. 1 (2007),  University of Miami Legal Studies Research Paper. Available at SSRN:

Parker B. Potter. ”Antipodal Invective: A Field Guide to Kangaroos in American Courtrooms,” Akron Law Review 39, 73-149, 2006.

Patricia Puritz, "In Defense of Children," 42 Harvard L Review 577 (2007).

Irene Merker Rosenberg, “Gault Turns 40: Reflections on Ambiguity,” 44 No. 3 Crim. Law Bulletin 3 (2008).

Robert E. Shepherd Jr., “In re Gault at 40: Still Seeking the Promise,” Criminal Justice, Vol. 22, Number 3, Fall 2007,

Robin Walker Sterling, “Fundamental Unfairness: In re Gault and the Road Not Taken, 72 Md. L. Rev. 607 (2012-2013)

Erica Tany, “What Have We Done to Gault - Youth Criminal Justice and the Charter of Rights and Freedoms: A Canadian Perspective,”  9 Barry L. Rev. 143 (2007)